Archive for October, 2014

All you need to know about EBOLA

Risk of Exposure and History

Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since then, outbreaks of Ebola among humans have appeared sporadically in Africa.

Risk

Healthcare providers caring for Ebola patients and the family and friends in close contact with Ebola patients are at the highest risk of getting sick because they may come in contact with the blood or body fluids of sick patients. People also can become sick with Ebola after coming in contact with infected wildlife. For example, in Africa, Ebola may spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats. The virus also can be spread through contact with objects (like clothes, bedding, needles, syringes/sharps or medical equipment) that have been contaminated with the virus or with infected animals.

Past Ebola Outbreaks

Past Ebola outbreaks have occurred in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

Current Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history and is affecting multiple countries in West Africa. One imported case from Liberia and associated locally acquired cases in healthcare workers have been reported in the United States, and one confirmed case has been reported in Spain.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of Ebola include

  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola, but the average is 8 to 10 days.

Recovery from Ebola depends on good supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years.

Diagnosis

Diagnosing Ebola in an person who has been infected for only a few days is difficult, because the early symptoms, such as fever, are nonspecific to Ebola infection and are seen often in patients with more commonly occurring diseases, such as malaria and typhoid fever.

However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola and has had contact with the blood or body fluids of a person sick with Ebola, contact with objects that have been contaminated with the blood or body fluids of a person sick with Ebola, or contact with infected animals, they should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.

Transmission

Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola viruses has not yet been identified, the way in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, scientists believe that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or primate (apes and monkeys), which is called a spillover event. Person-to-person transmission follows and can lead to large numbers of affected people. In some past Ebola outbreaks, primates were also affected by Ebola, and multiple spillover events occurred when people touched or ate infected primates.

When an infection does occur in humans, the virus can be spread in several ways to others. Ebola is spread through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes in, for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth) with

  • blood or body fluids (including but not limited to urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with Ebola
  • objects (like needles and syringes) that have been contaminated with the virus
  • infected fruit bats or primates (apes and monkeys)

Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, by food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats. There is no evidence that mosquitos or other insects can transmit Ebola virus. Only a few species of mammals (for example, humans, bats, monkeys, and apes) have shown the ability to become infected with and spread Ebola virus.

Healthcare providers caring for Ebola patients and the family and friends in close contact with Ebola patients are at the highest risk of getting sick because they may come in contact with infected blood or body fluids of sick patients.

During outbreaks of Ebola, the disease can spread quickly within healthcare settings (such as a clinic or hospital). Exposure to Ebola can occur in healthcare settings where hospital staff are not wearing appropriate protective equipment, including masks, gowns, and gloves and eye protection.

Dedicated medical equipment (preferable disposable, when possible) should be used by healthcare personnel providing patient care. Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments, such as needles and syringes, is also important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before being used again. Without adequate sterilization of the instruments, virus transmission can continue and amplify an outbreak.

ابولا را بشناسید و به دیگران نیز بشناسانید‏ | Let’s know EBOLA

ابولا چیست؟

یک بیماریه ویروسی است که انسانها را آلوده میکند و به احتمال حدود ۹۰ درصد فرد آلوده شده را خواهد کشت

این ویروس از طریق حیوانات وحشی به انسان منتقل شده و بعد ازطریق انسانهای الوده پخش شده است

 میزبان اصلی این ویروس خفاش بوده است

ویروس ابولا چطورمنتقل میشود؟

.از طریق تماس بدن انسان با خون و ترشحاتِ بدن و فضولات حیوانات آلوده-

.ازطریق تماس با مخاط، پوست، خون، رابطه جنسی و فضولات و حتی جسد انسان آلوده-

 باید بدانید اسپرم فرد مبتلا به ابولا تا ۷ هفته بعد از بهبود کامل (احتمالی)حاوی این ویروس کشندهست و

 بسیاری از موارد ابتلا به ابولا زمانی دیده میشود که پرستاران یا پزشکان در حال مراقبت از بیمار یا کنترل

میزان عفونت هستنداحتمال بروز بیماری در خانمهای باردار، بچهها و افرادی که ضعف سیستم ایمنی دارند خیلی بیشتر است

 علایم ونشانههای بیماری ابولا چیست؟

.علایم بیماری ۲ تا ۳ هفته بعد از ورود ویروس به بدن مشاهده میشود

 .علایم ابتدایی شامل تب، گلودرد، دردعضلانی و سردرد و پس از مدتی تهوع، اسهال و استفراغ هم اضافه میشود

 و بعد از این عملکرد کلیه و کبد مختل شده و بیمار شروع به خونریزی میکند

خونریزی ناشی از بیماری ابولا میتواند داخلی و خارجی باشد

.علایم آزمایشگاهی بیماری ابولا قابل توجه کادر بهداشت و درمان : کاهشگلبولسفید / کاهشمیزانپلاکت / افزایشمحسوسآنزیمهایکبدی

.علایم اولیه مالاریا، حصبه، وبا، طاعون، هپاتیت و مننژیت شبیه به ابولاست پس قبل از تشخیص بیماری ابولا، احتمال بیماریهای گفته شده باید بهطور کامل رد شود

Effective Rapid Cocaine Testing Kits |Rapid Cocaine Drug Test

Cocaine Testing | RapidTest.comLaboratories that offer expanded testing options to medical providers and patients are able to attract more business. Drug testing encourages employers and law enforcement agencies to work closely with labs in order to determine whether an individual has been using an illegal substance. Cocaine testing kits from Diagnostic Automation / Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. utilize urine samples to determine whether it is likely that the individual being tested has used cocaine.

The absence of a colored band on this test indicates a positive result. This test is used to detect the presence of cocaine in the urine, and levels above a specified cut-off point will return a positive result. A colored band will show up if there is no cocaine in the urine sample.

Cocaine is excreted in the urine primarily as benzoylecgonine in a short period. A standard cut-off level of 300 ng/ml of benzoylecgonine is used for the cocaine rapid test. If laboratories would like the test to return results for a different level of benzoylecgonine, there are custom test strips available to meet these needs. The rapid test is most useful approximately 12 to 72 hours following cocaine use.

The Rapid Cocaine Drug Test test is only intended to give a preliminary result. Lab technicians are able to give this initial result to patients, employers or law enforcement agencies to ensure that further testing is pursued as needed.

Diabetes Testing Kits for Your Lab |Diabetes ELISA kits

Diabetes Testing | RapidTest.comThere is more than one type of diabetes. They may vary in severity and duration, but every type of diabetes involves abnormally high blood sugar levels. If left unchecked, diabetes mellitus can lead to loss of limb and even loss of life.

If a person shows signs and symptoms of diabetes, it is imperative that they be tested. Fortunately, the diabetes testing process has been streamlined by the introduction of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA tests. When compared to alternative methods of detection, ELISA diabetes tests rank quite favorably.

Human Insulin ELISA Test Kit requires a small volume of 50μL sample. With a detection range of 0-300 ulU/ml, this test can provide accurate results in around two hours.

Human C-peptide ELISA Test Kit requires a 25ul sample and gives dependable results in approximately 135 minutes. C-Peptide tends to be a steadier indicator than rapidly fluctuating insulin levels.

Human Leptin ELISA Test Kit requires a 10ul sample. Intended for in vitro diagnostic use, this test offers reliable results in about 90 minutes.

ELISA diabetes testing provides accurate and quantitative determination of diabetes indicators in serum .Testing is a crucial part of diabetes care but is not intended to replace an honest doctor-patient relationship. To know more, contact Diagnostic Automation / Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. by calling (818) 591-3030.