Archive for the ‘Elisa kits’ Category

Introduction: ELISA Kit


Not long after the invention of the ELISA, scientists admired the efficiency it brought to the experiments. They could perform hundreds of tests one day individually, which was unable to image before. However, the difficulties in the preparation and procedures make it not available to most laboratories. Thus, it was come up with an idea to package the components of ELISA Test into a product (ELISA Kit) that can perform ELISA by individuals without complicate preparation and procedure steps.


Invention and Development

As we mentioned in the last article, RIA test systems were widely performed before the invention of ELISA test system. However, during the late 1960s and early 1970s, there were some difficulties when performing RIA test. In that period, most individual researchers use home-brew methods to perform RIA test. That is not because home-brew methods were more efficient (actually they were not). The reason is that they could not keep pace with the possibilities and facilities ( for some financial and technical reasons) of commercial manufactures such as Boehringer-Manheim, Abbott, and Organon Teknika. These companies also noticed this phenomenon, then they found that ELISA test systems.


As we mentioned, ELISA test systems were invented in the same period. Compared to RIA, ELISA is much cheaper, less technical recommend, and much safer than RIA, because of non-radiation. But the complex preparation and procedure steps blocked the spread of this new test system. If someone could make a ELISA kit, it provide the important materials used in the test and they are ready to use. The difficulties would be resolved. These manufacture came up with the same idea and they started to commercialize the ELISA Kit which contains the critical components for the ELISA test, which could substantially reduce the difficulties in the preparation and procedures.


One critical step of the ELISA Kit development is the use of solid-phase techniques. By the help of solid-pace techniques, scientists could noncovalently bind an antigen or an antibody in the wells of microtiter. In addition, the invention of automated machines, ,such as microtiter plate reader and washing instruments, promoted the population of ELISA Kit.


The Dutch company Organon Tenika is the first manufacture made progress in this field. They invented different ELISA Kits for reproductive endocrinology, etc, human chorionic gonadotropin, total estrogens and human placental lactogen from plasma sample. However, the new ELISA tests out of the fields we mentioned above, did not be commercialized until the late 1970s and early 1980s, when they could compare the exquisite sensitivity of the RIS test system for the same sample.


In 1976, Organon developed and marketed a very successful ELISA Kit for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), with a 960well micotitier plate format (Figure 1). It became the first commercial ELISA Kit. And it rapidly replaced the use of RIA or nonradioactive but rather cumbersome hemagglutination test in the blood-bank screening for the B surface antigen. Other same kind of ELISA Kit followed soon, such as hepatitis B “e” (Hbe) antigens, rubella antibodies, toxoplasma antibodies, and HIV antibodies ELISA Kit.

Figure 1. HbaAg ELISA kit by Organon Teknika


The use of ELISA kit significantly increased from 1976 to 1990s, and there is not sign of decrease till now (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Black line—ELISA Kit, grey line—RIA system.


In addition to the successfully commercialization of ELISA Kit,  there is another thing for ELISA worth to be noted in 1976. Perlmann, Schuurs, Engvall, and van Weemen were honored for their inventions when they received the German scientific award of the “Biochemische Analytik” in 1976. It was 5 years after they had published their first papers which systematically introduced ELISA Systems.



Components in the ELISA Kit

The most common components in the ELISA kit include Microplate, sample Diluent, Control(s), Standard(s) or Calibrator(s), Conjugate, Substrate, Stop Solution, Wash Buffer(s).

Note: most commercial ELISA kits apply indirect or sandwich ELISA test system.


Now let us take a close look at the function of these components :


Microplate: A solid phase most commonly has 96-well, and each well is noncovalently coated with antigen or antibody.

Sample Diluent: A solution used to dilute the sample to the concentration proper for the ELISA test.

Control(s); Usually there is a positive control and a negative control. The OD value of the negative control should not be higher than a standard value, and the OD value of the positive control should not be lower than a standard value, or the test is invalid.

Standard(s) or Calibrator(s): Manufacture would provide different known-concentrate standards or same concentrate Calibrator(s). Using standards, researchers could get a curve, and read the sample concentrate value from the curve. Using calibrator, researcher could get a cut-off value, and use it to get the sample/calibrator ratio, fatherly the concentrate value.

Conjuagte: It contains the secondary antibody, which will bind to the antibody-antigen complex. And it is linked with an enzyme to react with substrate.

Substrate: Substrate react with enzyme to produce a color change, which is mean to measure the amount of the antibody or antigen. TMB (3,3’,5,5’-Tetramethylbenzidine) is a often used substrate in the ELISA Kit.

Stop Solution: Stop the reaction, it usually is the H2SO4 and HCI mixed solution.

Wash Buffer(s): When users remove the non-bound antibodies or antigens, they choose the proper concentrate wash buffer.


The following picture (Figure 3) is a components list from our ANA Screen ELISA Kit.

Figure 3. Components list from ANA Screen ELISA Kit


1. White AM, Collett JR, Seurynck-Servoss SL, Daly DS, Zangar RC. ELISA-BASE: an integrated bioinformatics tool for analyzing and tracking ELISA microarray data. Bioinformatics. 2009 Jun 15;25(12):1566-7. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp182. Epub 2009 Apr 3.

2. Rudolf M. Lequin. Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)/Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Clinical Chemistry 51:12 2415–2418 (2005).


The Advantages Of ELISA Test And Its Application In Disease Viruses Diagnostic

What are the advantages of an ELISA test?

One of the greatest advantages of ELISA tests is the ability to obtain quick and accurate results.  All that is normally required is a simple blood sample that is obtained either through the arm or fingertip of a patient.  The fact that an ELISA kit can test not only for antibodies, but antigens as well, makes it a versatile tool for physicians, laboratories, and medical professionals all over the world.The ELISA tests have also found applications in the food industry in detecting food allergens, such as milk, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, and eggs.  ELISA tests can also be used in toxicology as a screen for certain classes of drugs.  Another advantage of using ELISA test kits is their high sensitivity.  ELISA Tests are favored over other testing options because not only are they more sensitive, but they are more cost effective.  Even more striking, is the applicability of the ELISA tests as convenient and easy-to-use HIV ELISA testing devices.


ELISA Tests and HIV ELISA Tests

Because ELISA tests can be performed to evaluate either the presence of antigen or the presence of antibody in a sample, it is a useful tool for determining serum antibody concentrations, such as with HIV ELISA tests.  The HIV ELISA test is usually the first one used to detect infection with HIV virus.  If antibodies to the HIV virus are present, or positive, the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis.  If the ELISA test is negative, other tests are not usually needed.  The ELISA test generally has a low chance of having a false result after the first few weeks of HIV infection.  The specificity and high sensitivity of the HIV ELISA Test make it a widely acceptable kind of ELISA test since it is able to detect all the possible HIV infections.  The HIV ELISA Test was the first screening test widely used for the HIV virus because of its high sensitivity.  Use of the HIV ELISA test kit, in relation to HIV virus detection, can be intended both for screening of blood donors or as an aid for the diagnosis of clinical conditions related to infection with HIV virus.

ELISA Tests and Hepatitis ELISA Kits

Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. has, as part of its superior ELISA test kit product inventory, numerous Hepatitis C ELISA Test Kits, or HCV ELISA Test Kits and Hepatitis B ELISA Test Kits, or HBV ELISA Test kits.  Simple to use Hepatitis C ELISA test kits include the HCV ab ELISA test which detects IgG antibodies to Hepatitis C virus in human serum or plasma.  The other convenient Hepatitis C ELISA test is the HCV ELISA Kit for quantitative detection of IgM class antibodies to Hepatitis C virus.  Also available are Hepatitis C Rapid Test Kits.

Superior and inexpensive Hepatitis B ELISA Kits are distributed within several ELISA Kit product categories: HbeAb ELISA Test Kit, HbeAg ELISA Test Kit, HbcAb Igm ELISA Test Kit, HbsAb ELISA Test Kit, and the HBsAg ELISA Test Kit.  All of these highly effective Hepatitis B ELISA Test Kits are available in any quantity worldwide.  Also in inventory and ready to ship, are top quality Hepatitis B Rapid Tests.

Other Hepatitis ELISA Tests Kits include:  HTLV ELISA test kit, HAV IgG ELISA test kit, HGV ELISA Test Kit, HEV ELISA Test Kit, HDV ELISA Test Kit, and HAV ELISA Test Kit.  Again, various simple and highly effective Hepatitis Rapid Tests are available worldwide.


Related Products


Los Angeles-based Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. has established the gold standard in its superior product line of ELISA Test Kits and HIV ELISA Tests.  A wide range of easy-to-use and inexpensive ELISA Test Kits are available:  Food Allergen ELISA Kits,Autoimmune ELISA Test Kits, Blood Bank ELISA kits, Cancer ELISA Test kits, Parasitology ELISA Kits, Steroid ELISA test kits, Thyroid ELISA test kits, Veterinary ELISA test kits, and Infectious Disease ELISA Kits, including Hepatitis ELISA Kits, HCV ELISA Kits, and HIV ELISA Test Kits.  For more information about these ELISA Test Kits, or other products such as Rapid Tests, IFA Tests, CIA Tests, Serology Tests, or any Drug Test Kits, please contact our Customer Service Department.

Some Related ELISA Kits Product Picture

                              HBcAb ELISA Kit


Elisa kits, Aflatoxin-B1

Lyme Disease Symptoms & Prevention: Part II

rivers-258367_1920Perhaps the most well-known symptom of Lyme disease is a rash that looks like a bull’s-eye. This occurs in 70-80 percent of people infected by a tick bite. The area directly around the tick bite may be red and raised and look like a normal bug bite. The rash often spreads in a circular pattern that’s lighter in the center and darker on the outer ring. However, not everyone who gets Lyme disease gets the target-shaped rash.

Classic signs of early Lyme disease include: muscle aches, headache, fatigue and fever. Some people with Lyme disease experience other, more advanced symptoms of the illness. Joint pain, especially in the knees, and a stiff neck may occur in the early-symptom stage or several months after your tick bite. Severe headaches and shooting pain in your body can occur. Dizziness and changes in your heart rate or rhythm are also advanced symptoms of Lyme disease.

Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. The earlier you’re treated, the better your chances for recovery. Most people who are diagnosed in the early stages take an oral medication for between two and three weeks.

Ultimately, it’s best to avoid and prevent infection, obviously. While we don’t want to limit time outdoors, it’s imperative to use caution and follow these guidelines to reduce your chances of a tick bite:

-Use DEET on skin and treat clothing with spray containing permethrin.
-Avoid tick-infested areas, such as dense leaves under trees.
– Avoid brushing against long grasses and brush on edges of paths. Don’t sit on stumps or fallen logs.
-Wear light-colored long pants and long sleeves so you can easily see any ticks.
-Tuck shirt into pants and tuck pants into socks.
-Do a thorough tick check upon returning inside and for several days following exposure.

Symptoms can start at any time between three and 30 days after infection. The incubation period can also lead to confusion about your symptoms. If you don’t remember being bitten, you may think you have the flu and you may not connect the tick bite and your symptoms.

If you’re experiencing any symptoms, contact your doctor immediately. They can administer a Lyme disease test kit, as well as blood work, to confirm or rule out Lyme disease infection.

Facts About Lyme Disease: Part I

tick-1271763_1280Most of us have at least heard about Lyme disease and know that it’s contracted from a tick – but that’s the extent of most people’s knowledge. In order to keep you and your family safe it’s important to know the details of Lyme disease, including what exactly it is, the symptoms and side effects , how to prevent Lyme disease and the use of Lyme Disease Elisa test kits in detection.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease in the US every year. With the exception of winter, when many, but not all, ticks are dormant, it’s possible to come into contact with a tick from spring through fall. That’s why isn’t important to be knowledgeable and aware of the risks.

What is Lyme Disease?
Lyme disease is an illness that’s caused by bacteria carried by infected Ixodes ticks, also known as deer ticks, and on the West Coast, black-legged ticks. Ticks are typically found in wooded and grassy areas.

Lyme disease can affect any organ of the body, including the brain and nervous system, muscles and joints, and the heart. Lyme disease is treatable, but it can cause serious health problems if you wait too long to receive treatment. Many people with Lyme disease don’t know they have it until their symptoms are advanced. Knowing the signs and symptoms will help you to seek treatment as early as possible.

To learn more about Lyme disease, continue reading our next blog post, Lyme Disease Symptoms & Prevention: Part II.

How Does Zika Virus Spread?

mosquito-1465062_1920As if mosquito’s weren’t nuisance enough in late spring and through the summer season, we must now contend with the risk of contracting the Zika virus. Protection is key, especially for children and pregnant women, to prevent being bitten, as well as preventing the spread of the disease.

In our previous post, Facts about the Zika Virus, we discussed the threat of the virus, symptoms and prevention. Now let’s discuss how the disease spreads.

Mosquitoes can carry Zika from person to person. If a pregnant woman is infected, the Zika virus can be transmitted to her baby while she is pregnant or around the time of birth. Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite both indoors and outdoors, mostly during the daytime.

As the weather becomes warmer, more mosquito’s will circulate. Some of the mosquito’s can be infected with the Zika virus. It is imperative to protect yourself using bug sprays and repellents containing DEET (20% to 30% concentration is best, according to the CDC), picaridin, oil-of-lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane–diol or IR3535.

However, being bitten from an infected mosquito isn’t the only way to contract the virus. The virus can also be sexually transmitted, including through oral sex, which can be very dangerous for pregnant women, or those trying to become pregnant.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) still is reviewing data on whether the virus can be transmitted through saliva and urine.

The best way to prevent becoming infected with the Zika virus is to wear long sleeves and pants, or clothes treated in permethrin, when necessary, use insect repellent and sleep in screened or air-conditioned rooms.

If you’re a doctor’s office, hospital, or emergency clinic looking for testing kits, RapidTest offers exceptional ELISA test kits, including infectious disease, parasitology, diabetes, and blood bank kits. Contact us today to learn more about our full selection of diagnostic test kits.

Facts about the Zika Virus

tiger-mosquito-49141_1920As the Zika virus continues to spread world wide – and with hundreds of imported cases here in the United States -here’s what every American needs to know about the virus and their risk.

With 40 million Americans traveling to Zika-affected countries every year, it’s only a matter of time before local transmission of the virus will begin, according to infectious-disease experts. It’s most likely to happen when an infected traveler returns to the U.S. and is bitten by a mosquito that’s capable of spreading disease.

Most people infected with Zika virus won’t even know they have the disease because they won’t have symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache.

If a pregnant woman is infected, the Zika virus can be transmitted to her baby while she is pregnant or around the time of birth. Some, but not all, babies born to mothers infected with Zika can have the birth defect, Microcephaly. Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is much smaller than expected and can lead to a number of health-related issues.

Preventing mosquito bites is the best way to prevent Zika. If you’re in an area with disease-spreading mosquitoes, wear long-sleeved shirts and pants, no matter how warm it is. According to the CDC, use insect repellents that contain one of the following ingredients: DEET (20% to 30% concentration is best, according to the CDC), picaridin, oil-of-lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane–diol or IR3535

Vaccine development is under way at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Scientists are tweaking a vaccine that was initially developed for the West Nile virus, and they expect to launch a safety trial for it in September 2016.

If you’re a doctor’s office, hospital, or emergency clinic looking for testing kits, RapidTest offers exceptional ELISA test kits, including infectious disease, parasitology, diabetes, and blood bank kits. Contact us today to learn more about our full selection of diagnostic test kits.

The Effects of Low T in Men

For men, testosterone and the amount your body produces is an important bodily function, in more ways than one. Yes, it does what we all know it to do, which is to regulate the sex drive, or libido. But it also goes beyond that and regulates bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass and strength, and the production of red blood cells and sperm. Therefore, low levels of testosterone in a man affect more than just his sex drive, as well as playing a large part in male infertility.

if you have one or more of these symptoms you may want to talk to your doctor about having your testosterone level checked. It is normal for testosterone levels to gradually decrease as you get older. However, if you have a low T and have the symptoms associated with low T you may want to consider your options for treatment

Administered by your physician, Testosterone Elisa Kits check the level of the male hormone (androgen) in the blood. Testosterone affects sexual features and development can be used as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of various hormonal and sexual disorders.

A testosterone tests are done for a variety of reasons, including:

  • To see why a man is having problems in fathering a child (infertility). A low amount of testosterone can lead to low sperm counts.
  • To check a man’s sexual problems. Having a low level of testosterone may lower a man’s sex drive or not allow him to have an erection (erectile dysfunction).
  • To find the cause of osteoporosis in a man.


Recognizing Common Symptoms Of Thyroid Disease

It’s estimated that as many as 59 million Americans have a thyroid problem, but the majority are unaware. Your thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland found at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in your blood to all parts of your body. The thyroid hormone controls your body’s metabolism in many ways, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats.

When your thyroid doesn’t function, it can affect every aspect of your health, and in particular, weight, depression and energy levels. Undiagnosed, thyroid problems can dramatically increase your risk of obesity, heart disease, depression, anxiety, hair loss, sexual dysfunction, infertility and a host of other symptoms and health problems.

Common Symptoms:
Weight struggles
Energy Issues (low or high)
Sleep problems
Mood swings
Appetite (high or low)
Digesting Issues
Female fertility/hormone irregularities
Joint pain
High cholesterol
Irregular body temperature

Of course, not everyone experiences all of these symptoms. The good news is that if identified, thyroid problems can be repaired. If you feel like any number of these symptoms effect you, contact your doctor immediately. They will run a thyroid Elisa kit blood test to identify any issues. Often time’s thyroid function can be recovered and restored with natural methods like stress reduction, diet, herbs, and supplements. Other times, medications are needed long-term. But in either case, treatment will help you feel like yourself again.

Fertility Boosters for Men and Women

yoga-1146277_1280If you’re like most couples trying to conscience, you want to get pregnant sooner rather than later. The longer it takes to get pregnant, the more pressure you put on yourself and for a women, your body. Stress and anxiety themselves can lead to infertility issues. For once, “practicing” is more work than fun.

Having intercourse as close as possible to ovulation definitely helps. To pinpoint your fertile days fertility testing kits help narrow down the window of opportunity. But fertility experts say there are other ways couples can boost their fertility.

Here are 5 tips to help increase your chances of becoming pregnant.
1. Weight Control: Being underweight or overweight can delay the time it takes a woman to conceive.

2. Sperm: Switching from boxers to briefs is an old wives’ tale, but exposure to high water temperatures through hot tubs or hot baths has shown to affect men’s fertility. It is also a possibility that long-term exposure to heat from using a computer in your lap, or a cellphone in your pocket could affect the health of a man’s sperm.

3. Beverages: Drinking too much coffee or too much alcohol can impair a woman’s fertility.

4. Smoking: Smoking cigarettes can impair both a woman’s and a man’s fertility. Smoking affects how receptive the uterus is to the egg. And in men, smoking can reduce sperm production and damage DNA.

5. Fertile Window: Your greatest chance for success is taking advantage of the fertile window – the 5 days prior to ovulation. Pregnancy is most likely to occur with intercourse within the three days before ovulation.

Dietary Tips to Increase Fertility

fruit-1191768_1280If you’re trying to get pregnant, the first step to ensuring you’re timing intercourse properly is with fertility Elisa kits. Fertility Elisa kits will pinpoint the best, most fertile days to get pregnant each month, greatly increasing your chance for conception.

In addition to knowing those peak fertile days, did you know that your diet can help increase your fertility? According to a study of diet and fertility from Harvard Medical School, unlike other factors that you cannot control – such as age and genetics – eating certain foods and avoiding others is something you can do yourself, without medical intervention, to help improve your ovulatory function.

Good Foods
Complex Carbs – Bad carbs, like cookies, cakes and white bread are broken down into blood sugar. To drive down the blood-sugar spike, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. Studies have found that high insulin levels inhibit ovulation. Good carbs (those containing fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains) are digested slowly and have a more gradual effect on blood sugar and insulin.

Plant-based Proteins – Plant protein (beans, nuts, seeds and tofu) comes with healthy fats and is relatively low in calories and can be helpful for weight loss.

Multi-Vitamin – Take a daily multivitamin that contains at least 400 micrograms of folic acid and 40 to 80 milligrams of iron.

Bad Foods
Trans Fat – Found primarily in foods such as commercial baked and snack foods, animal products, french fries and some margarines, increase insulin resistance. High insulin levels cause a lot of metabolic disturbances that affect ovulation.

Too Much Low-Fat Dairy – The more low-fat dairy products in a woman’s diet, the more trouble she can have getting pregnant. Consume one or two servings a day of whole milk or other full-fat dairy foods, such as yogurt, and less non- and low-fat dairy.