Archive for the ‘Food Allergen ELISA kits’ Category

Identifying Food Allergies

If you’re one of the millions of people who are affected by food allergies, you must be constantly vigilante of what you eat, or even what your food unknowingly comes into contact with. If you have a shell-fish allergy and your food has been prepared on the same grill as the allergen the ramifications to your health could be serious.

Knowing exactly what you’re allergic to is key to your health – and this requires a food allergy test from your doctor utilizing Food Elisa Kits. Each year, millions of Americans have allergic reactions to food. Although most food allergies cause relatively mild and minor symptoms, some food allergies can cause severe reactions, and may even be life-threatening. There is no cure for food allergies. Strict avoidance of food allergens — and early recognition and management of allergic reactions to food — are important measures to prevent serious health consequences.

Major Food Allergens:
There are more than 160 foods which can cause allergic reactions in people with food allergies. The eight most common allergenic foods, which account for 90% of food allergic reactions, are the food sources from which many other ingredients are derived. Those foods are:
Milk, Eggs, Fish (e.g., bass, flounder, cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g. crab, lobster, shrimp), Tree nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts, pecans), Peanuts, Wheat, Soybeans.

Symptoms:
Symptoms of food allergies typically appear from within a few minutes to two hours after a person has eaten the food they are allergic to.

Allergic reactions can include:
Hives
Flushed skin or rash
Tingling or itchy sensation in the mouth
Face, tongue, or lip swelling
Vomiting and/or diarrhea
Abdominal cramps
Coughing or wheezing
Dizziness and/or lightheadedness
Swelling of the throat and vocal cords
Difficulty breathing
Loss of consciousness

Testing for Allergies

pollen allergensThe return of spring marks the beginning of allergy season for people across the country. As the flowers and trees begin to bud and bloom, the air becomes heavy with pollen and other allergens that quickly wreak havoc on allergy sufferers everywhere. In order to determine what triggers seasonal allergies, a diagnostic test can be given to see what potential allergens the body reacts to.

If you’re currently working in a doctor’s office, a hospital or a clinical facility, it’s important to stock up on allergy test kits before the season gets into full swing. At RapidTest.com there are a variety of allergy testing options available including Allergy Rapid Tests, Chemiluminescence Allergy Assays, and Allergy ELISA Kits. These tests are alternatives to the skin prick test and are ideal for people who cannot safely have a skin prick test conducted due to a skin condition such as eczema or may be on medications that may interfere with the skin testing.

In addition to seasonal allergies, an ELISA food allergy panel can also be used to determine food allergies that may otherwise cause severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. It’s important to determine what triggers allergic responses in an individual in order to improve their quality of life. By learning what objects, places or foods cause allergic reactions in a person, overall health can be improved dramatically.

Vitamin B12 ELISA kit blog

Vitamin B12 ELISA kit

At Los Angeles-based Diagnostic Automation (focusing on ELISA Kits) we offer two vitamin B12 elisa kits:

1) Food Vitamin B12 ELISA kit to determine vitamin B12 quantitatively in vitaminated food in a significantly faster way (2.5 to 4 hours inclusive sample pretreatment) compared to a conventional microbiological assay (24 to 48 hours)

2) Vitamin B12 ELISA kit to measure the serum concentration of vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, has the largest and the most complicated structure in vitamins.  Cobalamin is an organometallic compound and only known essential molecule with a stable metal-carbon bond.  To discover vitamin B12, elucidate its metabolic roles, discover the signs and symptoms of its deficiency, and to find treatment, took over 100 years [1].  In 1850s Thomas Addison an English physician described a lethal (pernicious) anemia.  In 1930s Castel an American physician discovered the intrinsic factor (IF) essential for B12 absorbance and many years later it was found to be a glycoprotein.  In 1934 Whipple, Minot, and Murphy shared the Nobel Prize for their discovery of treating anemia with liver extract.  In 1950s Dorothy Hodgkin a British chemist described the structure of vitamin B12 and received the Nobel Prize for it in 1964[2].  Different biochemical roles of B12 such as its interaction with folate and their linked role in megaloblastic anemia, was identified subsequently.  B12 continues to be the subject of intense interest in research especially the deficiency in infants secondary to maternal origins and its role in their development [3].

 

 

Molecular structure of Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Cobalamin/vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal formation of red blood cells and also normal functioning of the nervous system including brain.  Moreover, it is involved in the DNA regulation; synthesis and fatty acid metabolism, thus effecting energy production in the body.  Every cell of human body needs vitamin B12 for its normal function.  Animal, Plants, and fungi are not capable of producing vitamin B12.  Only archaea and bacteria have the necessary enzymes required for the synthesis of B12 in the form of hydroxocobalamin which is then converted to cobalamin in the human body.  B12 is naturally present in animal foods and can also be received through supplements.  However, proper absorption in the body requires a complex pathway [4].

Vitamin B12 has profound effects on human health and is essential for several crucial functions in the body.  The deficiency manifest when serum levels are below the cutoff point.  In USA the limit is 200 picograms per milliliter (pg/ml) [5].  In Europe and Japan the limit for B12 is 500-550 pg/ml, this level of B12 may explain the lower rate of Alzheimer in these countries compared to USA with lower cut off (200pg/ml) [6].  It is essential to identify the B12 deficiency promptly.

Diagnostic Automation offers a rapid and reliable tool as an ELISA kit for measuring the serum concentration of vitamin B12.  Deficiency of vitamin B12 can manifest with hematological disorder, such as severe anemia requiring blood transfusions, and behavioral changes to serious and permanent nerve damage, neurologic, vascular, and gastrointestinal problems.

Vitamin B12 was discovered through investigation of Pernicious anemia.  Pernicious anemia is a member of the large family of megaloblastic anemias that is characterized by production of large immature and dysfunctional red blood cells in the body.  Pernicious anemia is a form of autoimmune disease that destroys cells in the stomach which are responsible for the production of Cubilin, an intrinsic factor (IF) which is a protein essential for the absorption of B12.  IF is located within the epithelium of intestine and kidney. Mutations in CUBN (Cubilin gene) may play a role in autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia [7].  Real pernicious anemia constitutes only a small fraction of the cases, however, malabsorption due to diminished secretion of gastric acid and enzymes necessary for the cleavage of protein- B12 bond from food is the main concern.  It is very important to note that maintaining an optimal status of vitamin B12 is not only dependent on adequate dietary intake but more critically on its effective absorption which declines with age.

Vitamin B12 is absorbed through saliva at the ingestion stage, and then during digestion.  The vitamin B12 from food proteins is released with the help of acids in the stomach.  Absorption of B12 depends on intrinsic factor (IF) which is present in the gastric juice.  IF combines with vitamin B12 and facilitates its absorption in the lower part of the small intestine. Vitamin B12 and Folate deficiencies have similar symptoms, so it is important to have accurate tests that can detect the differences.  Fortunately, Vitamin B12 deficiency can easily be treated and prevented [8].  It is very important to be aware of it since there is a high prevalence of mild, subclinical B12 deficiency in asymptomatic individuals, especially with individuals at high risk such as vegan/vegetarian [9].

Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies can lead to development of severe and irreversible neurologic damage.  Although vitamin B12 deficiencies was estimated to occur at a frequency of 1 in every 31 adults 51 years of age or older in USA population, but the incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency is far more common than previously assessed [10; 11].  The rise in gastric bypass surgeries in obese women and growing incidence of gastrointestinal issues such as coeliac disease, Crohn’s, and ulcerative colitis, plus the increasing number of vegan/vegetarian mother are the growing concern [12].  These conditions substantially decrease the absorption of vitamin B12 which adversely affects the development of children born of these women. The association between vitamin B12 and cognitive development in children has been observed in infant born to vegan and vegetarian mothers.

A recent study in infants with B12 deficiency has reported diverse clinical abnormities including hypotonic muscle, apathy, cerebral atrophy, and nerve cell demyelination.  Some of these symptoms were reversible since, a rapid improvement in neurological symptoms was reported after vitamin B12 therapy.  However, in long term follow up many of these infants showed serious delay in cognitive and language development.  Babies born to vegetarian mothers may show deficiency of vitamin B12.  Delayed detection and treatment in infants with vitamin B12 deficiencies, can lead to severe and permanent damage to their nervous system.

At Diagnostic Automation (focusing on “ELISA Kits”) we offer vitamin B12 elisa kit which informs mothers before their pregnancy and upon the detection of low level of B12 using vitamin B12 elisa kit, supplement intake can prevent the complications due to deficiency if that is the primary cause of the deficiency.  Although our vitamin B12 serum elis kit is very fast and accurate, Homcysteine and methylmalonic acid can also be used to confirm a vitamin B12 deficiency for cases with ambiguous initial results because metabolic changes often precede low cobalamin levels [13].

Homocysteine levels in blood are influenced by blood levels of B-complex vitamins: cyanocobalamin (B12), folic acid (B9) and pyridoxine (B6).  Studies have shown that high plasma total homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Elevated level of homocysteine which is an amino acid with biological functions in methionine metabolism is a risk factor for cardiovascular events.  Cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, stroke and congestive heart failure, is the number one cause of death worldwide.  Thus, it has been suggested that B vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

Preventive strategies might include healthy people with low or high risk for developing cardiovascular disease and people with an established cardiovascular disease to take these supplements.  A study including 12 randomized clinical trials involving 47,429 participants show no evidence that homocysteine lowering interventions such as supplementations of vitamins B12, B9 or B6, prevent myocardial infarction and stroke.  However, multiple studies have shown a significant improvement.

Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation 2 (HOPE 2) trial reanalysis, showed a reduced incidence of nonfatal stroke with long term (over 3 years) treatment with B vitamins [14-16].  Patients with homocystinuria are prone to thromboembolic events even with minor surgeries.  Levels of homocysteine should be reduced to a near normal level before any surgery.   Increased levels of methylmalonyl CoA and homocysteine in sever form can affect the vascular system and increase the diseases such as Parkinson, atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and stroke. It is postulated that the effect might be through increased level of stress at the cellular level, eventually leading to apoptosis (programed cell death).

Vitamin B12 has high level of importance in public health, not only because of its deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia and irreversible nerve damage, but also because there are emerging evidence that links vitamin B12 deficiencies to an increased risk of a number of age related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia.  Moreover, there are concerns relating the imbalance of B12 and folate, especially the potential adverse effects for older adults with low vitamin B12 status and over exposure to folate especially in countries with mandatory fortification of food with folate. Thus, inter relationship between vitamin B12 and folate is an important emerging issue in aging population.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can easily be treated and prevented.  There are inexpensive treatment options available as B12 supplement to treat a vitamin B12 deficiency. The treatment is safe, effective, with no known toxicity. To prevent B12 deficiency, all patients 51 years of age and older should be recommended to take B12 supplement daily however, the dosage recommendation may vary.  Recent studies show that in people with malabsorption problems of B12, high dose of oral or nasal intake may be as effective as injection.  However, in severe cases of deficiency such as pernicious anemia and neurological symptoms injection is still the preferred method of administrating vitamin B12.  In USA cyanocobalamin is the most frequent form of B12 supplementation, however recent research prefers hydroxycobalamins which is more common in Europe and it has shown to be superior to cyanocobalamin.

Finally, to identify B12 deficiency the first step is to take an accurate test to determine the level of B12 in the serum.  At CORTEZ DIAGNOSTICS we offer a rapid and reliable vitamin B12 deficiency elisa test kit proved to be both accurate and fast in determining B12 concentration in blood.  The next step is identifying the mechanism and problem leading to B12 deficiency.  This is a challenging step and requires professional help, after that the suitable form of B12 in a form of injection, oral, nasal, and sublingual and the dose and length of treatment will be determined easily.  All patients with unexplained hematologic or neurologic signs and symptoms should be evaluated for B12 deficiency since it is easy to miss the B12 deficiency.

 

Indications for B12 testing:

Megaloblastic or Pernicious anemia: a condition in which there is a lack of an intrinsic factor (IF)

Hyperhomocysteinaemia: an inherited disorder of the metabolism the amino acid methionine and Homocystinuria: also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, both are associated with atherosclerosis, venous and arterial thrombosis.  Acquired forms can be treated with vitamins B12 and B6 and folate

Peripheral neuropathy: damage to the nerve of the peripheral nervous system, may be caused by diseases or trauma to the nerve or as a side effect of a systemic illness

Patients with GI problems: patients with gastritis (long term use of acid-reducing drugs), gastric surgery (e.g., gastric bypass, gastrectomy), gluten intolerance or intestinal resorption disorders, atrophic gastritis (a thinning of the stomach lining that affects up to 30% of people aged 50 and older)

Conditions affecting the small intestine: such as Crohn’s disease, Celiac diseases, parasite (B12 utilizing fish tapeworm such as the Diphyllobothrium latum) or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine and viral infection (e.g. HIV)

Alcoholism: decrease vitamin B12 absorption

Autoimmune disorders: such as Grave’s disease or systemic lupus erythematous

Pancreatic insufficiency

Patients with thrombosis

Chronic liver and kidney disease

Vitamin B12 deficiency from diet: vegan and vegetarians; pregnancy and lactation

 

 

References:

1. Scott J.M. Molloy A.M. The Discovery of Vitamin B12. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;61:239–245

2. Dorothy Crowfoot, et al. Structure of Vitamin B12: The Crystal Structure of the Hexacarboxylic Acid derived from B12 and the Molecular Structure of the Vitamin. Nature 176, 325 – 328 (20 August 1955)

3. Pepper MR, Black MM . B12 in fetal development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011, 22(6):619-23

4. Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer.  Biochemistry, 5th edition W H Freeman; 2002. ISBN-10: 0-7167-3051-0

5. Goodman M, Chen XH, Darwish D. Are US lower normal B 12 limits too low? 1996. J Am Geriatr Soc 44 (10): 1274–5

6. Mitsuyama Y, Kogoh H. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid vitamin B12 levels in demented patients with CH3-B12 treatment–preliminary study. 1988. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol.42 (1): 65–71

7. Stabler SP, Allen RH. Megoblastic anemias. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, editors. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2004. p. 1050-7

8. Medline plus, B12 deficiency: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000574.htm

9. de Benoist B.  Conclusions of a WHO Technical Consultation on folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies. Food Nutr Bull. 2008; 29(2 Suppl):S238-44

10. den Elzen WP, Gussekloo J. Anaemia in older persons. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 97

11. Hughes CF, Ward M, Hoey L, McNulty H. Vitamin B12 and ageing: current issues and interaction with folate.  2013 April 16; Ann Clin Biochem.

12. Dror DK, Allen LH. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms. Nutr Rev. 2008; 66(5):250-5.

13. Sally P. Stabler. Vitamin B12 Deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2013; 368:149-160

14. Toole JF. et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(5):565-75

15. Spence JD. Homocysteine-lowering therapy: a role in stroke prevention? Lancet Neurol. 2007;6(9):830-8

16. Saposnik G. et al. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and stroke risk, severity, and disability: additional findings from the HOPE 2 trial. Stroke. Apr 2009;40(4):1365-72

 

 

FOOD ALLERGEN ELISA KITS – Food Elisa kits – Food Allergen Tests

FOOD SAFETY WITH FOOD ALLERGEN ELISA KITS

 

Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. develops, manufacturers, and distributes a wide range of Food Allergen ELISA Kits to assist in the screening and analyses underlying allergen control and food safety as carried out by the food industry, laboratories, physicians, consumers, government agencies, and law enforcement authorities.  These Food Allergen ELISA Kits are screening and quantitative food allergen tests to detect food allergens that increasingly cause allergies to millions of consumers, and to improve food safety of commercially sold food products.  Our unique Food Allergen ELISA Kits are specifically suited to detect allergens, such as almond, walnut, mustard, lupine, hazelnut, peanut, soy, egg, gluten, and beta-lactose/milk residues.  These Food Allergen ELISA Kits are an economical and convenient way to pinpoint specific food allergens to ensure food safety.  Findings on these food allergen tests give a detailed analytical result that can be used to target and eliminate sources of irritation to individual consumers and safeguard food safety in certain segment populations.

 

FOOD SAFETY USING FOOD ALLERGEN TESTS

Food allergies and labeling continue to be a concern for consumers, government, and the food industry worldwide.  To improve consumer food safety, comply with food allergen screening and labeling laws, and to protect their own reputation and business, food producers need analytical methods to monitor the presence of food allergens in their products to certify food safety.  How can food producers effectively select and implement a detection method from the range of methods available to guarantee food safety?  One of the most widely used methods available are food allergen tests, such as that offered in the Food Allergen ELISA Kits.  Food manufacturers protect those with food allergies by clearly labeling their products with a list of ingredients.  However, Food allergen tests ensure food manufacturers that an unlabeled and potentially dangerous ingredient did not make its way into a food product.  Food Allergen Testing can also add to, and protect, a company’s reputation.  Currently, some companies put a precautionary statement like “may contain peanut and peanut products” on the ingredient label, even though there is very little chance the product actually contains any peanut byproduct.  If food allergen screening, or food allergen testing, is done, then companies may be able to minimize the use of precautionary labels to assure food safety.

 

Food allergens constitute a high risk for the food industry that wants to guarantee the food safety of their products. The allergenic protein that causes reactions is highly stable and heat resistant.  The only safe course of action to ensure food safety is complete segregation of allergens and correct labeling practices to guide allergic consumers.  If products are mislabeled or contamination occurs, an allergic individual may experience a reaction called anaphylactic shock, a potentially deadly condition that is increasingly observed in the population, particular children.  Food Allergen screening and labeling legislation is in place around the world and food manufacturers increasingly are mandated to conduct formal allergen control, which includes regular food allergen testing.  Many countries, including the US, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the European Union, have adopted their own food allergen testing and proper food allergen screening and labeling practices to ensure food safety.

 

These Food Allergen ELISA Kits are Immunoassay for the Quantitative Determination of a specific food allergen screening of food.  The Food Allergen tests are based on the binding of allergenic protein by specific antibodies. These Food Allergen ELISA Kits are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that have been developed and are available for the detection of different food allergens.  With the availability of these Food Allergen ELISA Kits, routine food allergen screening of products for the presence of specific food allergens is possible.

 

POPULAR FOOD ALLERGEN TESTS

 

The prevalence of food allergies is increasing and there is no cure for the condition.  Food allergic consumers must avoid food allergens and rely on clear and accurate food allergen screening and labeling for establishing food safety.  However, traces of allergenic substances in food may cause problems for allergic individuals as they are inadvertently exposed to these silent allergy causing materials.  Food Allergen ELISA Kits have been found to be increasingly popular among physicians who are looking for a reliable method to aid in the diagnosis of an otherwise difficult diagnostic problem.  The Food Allergen kits will identify the most common food allergy triggers and are a good starting point to identify problem areas.  Specific concerns can be addressed with additional Food Allergen ELISA Kits.  Food Allergen ELISA Kits are designed to detect one allergen at a time.  For this reason, numerous food allergen tests may be needed to detect multiple food allergens.

 

OTHER RELATED FOOD ALLERGEN TEST PRODUCTS

 

Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. offers some of the most extensive collection of food allergen testing products.  An array of Food Allergen ELISA kits have been assembled to serve our customers’ needs.  Benefits of such a range of food Allergen ELISA test kit options include brand name protection, compliance with product and labeling requirements, prevention of costly product recalls, duty of responsibility, and ensuring consumer confidence.

Additional Food ELISA Test Kits offered by our company include the Food Nutrients ELISA Kit, Food Toxins ELISA Kit, and Food Adulterants ELISA Kits.  For further information regarding specific food allergen tests, Food Allergen ELISA Kits, Food Allergen screening, food safety or any other Food ELISA Test Kit, please contact our Customer Service Department.

 

Food Allergen ELISA kits list : http://rapidtest.com/index.php?product=Food-Allergen-ELISA-kits&cat=130